SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: OVERVIEW OF SOME URGENT ISSUES FROM NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LAW PERSPECTIVES
The article analyzes some urgent problems of the legal governance of scientific research, namely the adherence to the principles of academic freedom and academic integrity, as well as protection of the right to science. The article provides the definitions of academic freedom and academic integrity, considers relevant international and national legal documents and case-law. It analyzes main criteria for the free use of quotations which must be adhered to in the context of preserving academic integrity principles and observes practical consequences of different definitions of plagiarism by education and copyright law. The author considers the normative content of the right to science in accordnce with International Law and highlights its importance in times of COVID-19 pandemic. The author concludes that academic freedom, academic integrity and right to science in general are linked to economic, social and cultural rights, especially the right to information, freedom of thought and expression, freedom from discrimination. If a state is not able to exert every effort to implement its positive responsibility (due diligence) regarding human right to science, including to academic freedom, such a state must be held responsible under customary rules of International Law. In case of violations of the principles of academic integrity comes academic responsibility which is the competence of national governmental bodies on science and education. The only exception is plagiarism which is copyright infringment leading to civil or even criminal responsibility and which is the competence of national civil courts.
Key words: academic freedom, academic integrity, right to science, international law, national law.