THE ROLE OF INNOVATION CLUSTERS IN BUILDING UP INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN THE CROSSBORDER COOPERATION CONTEXT
Abstract. Innovation clusters are analyzed in the article from the perspective of cross-border cooperation of regions. Types of clusters are highlighted, capable of adapting to cross -border cooperation, which enables to identify and outline the instruments of economic policy, capable to stimulate deepening of innovation processes in cross -border regions. Specialization and specifics of gaining competitiveness through promoting new comparative advantages are defined as the determining criteria for distinguishing the notions of “cross-border cluster in the conditions of cross -border cooperation” and “cross -border innovative cluster”. The innovative cluster’s role is analyzed in terms of its being a promoter of creating the innovation ecosystem as a highly coordinated system of dynamics interlinks between economic agents and institutes, resulting in the innovation activity, commercial success of projects and technological modernization of the structure of national economies, which effectiveness is conditional on the conformity of the institutional environment with the needs of R&D, education and business, and with the latter’s capability to build the closed loop innovation cycle. The determinants of gravity of regional entities, the dominant principles of cross -border cooperation, the determinants of effectiveness and ineffectiveness of cross -border cooperation of border regions are defined; the multi-category approach to assessment of the cross -border potential is given. The potential of customs tariff and fiscal regulation in stimulating the innovation activity in the conditions of cross -border cooperation is highlighted. The controversial character of “border” is identified from the perspective of opportunities and threats for innovation activities, generated by it. Cross-border cooperation is identified as a trigger for implementation of technological projects and innovationdriven productions.
Keywords: cross-border cooperation, border region, innovation clusters, business innovation centers, innovation process.